發文作者:Wonderland Villas Focus Group | 十月 3, 2009

廣深港高鐵每公里平均造價全球最高(南華早報報道翻譯)

南華早報報道翻譯:廣深港高鐵每公里平均造價全球最高

編按:香港的主流媒體中,現在只有《南華早報》咬住廣深港高速鐵路這個大白象工程不放。可惜西報在九七後的影響力大降,現將報道及社評譯出,希望更多人能看到記者的成果。

日期:週六,  二零零九年十月三日
記者:chloe lai 翻譯:朱凱迪
原題:Express Rail to be world’s most costly

按政府目前的造價估計,新跨境高速鐵路香港段的平均每公里造價是全球最高的,而且政府已表明更新後的造價估計將會更高。目前全長廿六公里的高鐵香港段造價估計為三百九十五億港元,平均每公里的造價為十五億二千萬港元,或一點九億美元。相比起全球其餘十五條近年落成或正在興建的高速鐵路,包括一三一八公里的京滬高速鐵路及英法高速鐵路,香港段的平均每公里造價是最高的。而且造價估計將會飈升。政府正在預備新的造價估計,政府消息人士指希望能將造價控制 在五百億以下。

多位工程師表示,高鐵香港段的平均造價如此高昂,是由於香港段的大部分都是建於地底,包括面積十四萬平方公尺的西九龍總站。西九龍車站的詳細設計仍未向公眾公布。但一份在工程界流傳的港鐵文件指,西九龍總站是一個龐大的三層地底建築,包括兩層停車場,還有十五個月台。要建築如此龐大的地下車站,將要挖起四百五十萬立方米的泥土,和灌注一百萬立方米的混凝土。

資深工程師黎廣德表示:「國金二期的總樓面面積為十八萬五千平方米,高四百零五米。假設每層的平均樓高四米,國金二期的體積大約有七十四萬立方米。因此,興建西九龍站灌注的一百萬立方米混凝土相當於國金二期體積的一點三五倍。四百五十萬挖土則相當於國金二期體積的六倍。」高鐵香港段廿六公里將會以雙隧道形式興建,穿過三個山──金山、大帽山和雞公嶺──這是令造價高昂的另一理由。

相較而言,二零零七年落成、三四五公里長的台灣高鐵每公里平均造價四千四百七十一萬美元,一三一八公里長的京滬高鐵每公里平均造價二千四百四十萬美元。跨越英倫海峽的一零九公里高鐵每公里平均造價八千五百萬美元。預計二零一一年落成、四二五公里長的法國TGV「萊茵河─隆河」段每公里平均造價七百九 十萬美元。

工程師兼城市規劃委員會副主席黃澤恩表示,他相信地底高鐵車站佔造價估計一半以上。他說地底車站的造價較地面昂貴好幾倍,但沒有其他選擇。「因為是在西九龍,總站必須建在地底。若果不是建在地底,那些住在上蓋豪宅的人會怎樣反應?若果車站建在地面並且影響到西九文化區,藝術界又會如何反應?」黃說,除了以隧道興建外,沒有其他辦法。「若果不是在地底興建,那太多樓房需要拆卸讓路。」黎廣德則認為,政府選錯了總站位置。「那根本是太難和太貴了。挖得這麼深也表示將來的乘客要走一大段路才能接駁其他本地交通工具。」

運輸及房屋局副局長邱誠武表示,高鐵香港段造價昂貴,是因為要照顧環境和保育需要而將整段鐵路建在地底。他說,政府正盡力壓低造價估計,但問題是建築材料價格在過去一年上升了五成。

但是,經濟學者卻認為,目前沒有公布足夠的資訊,讓他們可以推算一下往廣州的高鐵票價,或者怎樣的票價水平可以令計劃收回成本。中大航空政策研究中心副主任羅祥國表示,政府應該公布更多資訊,特別是鐵路的營運開支。「政府沒有可能不知道鐵路的營運開支。他們現在應該已知道,也應該讓公眾知道。不然,在政府外便沒有任何人可以合理地估計出要多長時間才能收回成本,或者評估項目是否具成本效益。」

高鐵規劃的初期討論曾提及一個便宜得多的選擇──與西鐵共用路軌。但當鐵路部告訴港府全國高鐵列車的新標準是三點四米闊,而西鐵月台不能容納闊於三點一米的列車後,此選項便被排除了。

連結西九龍和邊境的香港段預料在二零一五年落成。往深圳福田的車程為十四分鐘,往番禺石壁的車程則為四十八分鐘。往廣州商業中心的乘客一是繼續乘搭由紅磡開出的廣九直通車,一是在番禺石壁站轉乘十八個站地鐵。運輸及房屋局預計,在二零一六年,每日將有九萬九千乘客使用高鐵。當中大部分人都是來往深圳,而只有一萬一千人次是來往廣州以外的地區。政府己向立法會表示,高鐵香港段的造價將會大幅提高。

運輸及房屋局局長鄭汝樺上星期說,當初於二零零六年做的造價估計「有點保守」。副局長邱誠武在上星期說,政府不打算在短時間內收回成本,將會營運一條具競爭力的鐵路以吸引乘客。他說高鐵的票費只會稍為高於目前的單程一百九十港元的直通車服務。


第二部分:零九年十月三日社論,原題Costly railway plan sets off alarm bells

Hong Kong’s government is synonymous with impressive infrastructure projects. Among those being built or on the drawing board are the West Kowloon Cultural District, the bridge to Macau, the Central to Wan Chai bypass and redevelopment of the Kai Tak airport site. The reasoning for such schemes is simple enough: projecting our city’s image, creating jobs and expanding the economy. All these, plus integration with the mainland, tap into the construction of a high-speed rail line to the border to link up with a section running from suburban Guangzhou.

Making travel between Hong Kong and the mainland faster is in the interests of people on both sides of the border. The line would also link up with the wider-gauge, national high-speed network. But the project has nonetheless rightly raised concern.

The Hong Kong side of the line will, kilometre by kilometre, be the most expensive of its type in the world based on the present estimate of HK$39.5 billion – which is expected to increase, perhaps by as much as 50 per cent. Authorities have also been less than transparent about the scheme.

For the investment, we will get a terminus in West Kowloon and 26 kilometres of track. The high cost is down to most of the project being underground. Planners say that this is necessary because of Hong Kong’s urban circumstances; too many buildings are in the way of the proposed line, and a railway station in the midst of the planned West Kowloon Cultural District would be unsightly. The Guangdong side of the line will be above ground.

The government originally promoted the project as a means of dramatically cutting travel time to Guangzhou. When the route was revealed, this proved not to be the case. As the last station will be at Shibi, in the city’s Panyu district, the time difference with the present through train will be minimal: the business district is 18 stops away on Guangzhou’s metro line. Traversing the 140,000 square metre terminus to transfer to other transport will also presumably be time-consuming.

Authorities have not been forthcoming with crucial details. Plans for the terminus have yet to be made public, even though it appears to account for half the cost. No indication has been given of the anticipated ticket price, or how long it will take for the project to break even. The operating cost has not been revealed. There has been no word on how the line will connect to the existing transport infrastructure.

The express rail link is among projects Chief Executive Donald Tsang Yam-kuen unveiled as a means for Hong Kong to get out of recession. They will create jobs and move the economy forward. Some – the line among them – will further integration with the mainland. There is no doubt about the immediate benefits.

Hong Kong’s built-up environment, geography and geology ensure that construction projects, big and small, are expensive. Given this, the government has to ensure that what it undertakes with public funding is good for Hong Kong. Plans have to have community backing. Public consultation and transparency are of the utmost importance.

The red tape that stymies large-scale infrastructure projects elsewhere in the world does not apply here. Years, not decades, lapse between conception and construction. Such ease demands that projects be thoroughly thought through. They must not be wasteful. Most importantly, they have to provide


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